Broadcasting of sports events
See also: East Coast bias
Broadcasting of sports started with descriptions of play sent via telegraph in the 1890s. In 1896, a telegraph line was connected to the Victoria Rink in Montreal to update fans in Winnipeg of the Stanley Cup challenge series between Montreal and Winnipeg ice hockey teams. In 1923, the first radio broadcast of an ice hockey game took place on 8 February, with the broadcast of the third period of a game between Midland and North Toronto of the Ontario Hockey Association. Later that month, the first full game broadcast took place in Winnipeg. That same season, hockey broadcasting pioneer Foster Hewitt made his first broadcast.
In 1933, Hewitt called a Canada wide radio broadcast of an NHL game between the Detroit Red Wings and the Toronto Maple Leafs. Always starting the broadcast with "Hello, Canada, and hockey fans in the and Newfoundland!"; this phrase stuck around (albeit without the "Newfoundland" portion after the dominion confederated into Canada in 1949) all the way to CBC’s first national television broadcast (the first actual broadcast was on closed circuit in Maple Leaf Gardens in Spring 1952) of Hockey Night in Canada in October 1952. Today it is consistently among the highest rated programs in Canada.
Broadcasting of the Canadian Football League has been a fixture of Canadian television since the CBC’s debut in 1952. From 1962 (one year after the debut of CTV) through 2007, there were two separate CFL contracts: one for CBC, and one for CTV (or a sister channel such as cable outlet TSN). Terrestrial television broadcasts of CFL games ended in 2008, when TSN acquired exclusive TV rights to the league.
American sports broadcasts are widely available in Canada, both from Canadian stations and from border blasters in the . In order to protect Canadian broadcasters’ advertising, broadcast stations can invoke simultaneous substitution: any cable or satellite feed of an American station broadcasting the same program as a Canadian broadcast station must be blacked out and replaced by the Canadian feed. This rule is part of the reason the NFL, which is broadcast on terrestrial television in the but has only a token presence in Canada, is also broadcast on terrestrial TV in Canada, while the CFL no longer is (the CFL is broadcast only on cable in the ); the simultaneous substitution benefits are not extended to cable stations. Two weeks later the first broadcast of a football match took place, with the BBC covering Arsenal’s league fixture against Sheffield United at Highbury. Listeners to the broadcast could use numbered grids published in the Radio Times in order to ascertain in which area of the pitch the action was taking place due to a second commentator reading out grid references during the match.
The saw the first live television broadcast of a football match, with the BBC showing a specially arranged fixture between Arsenal and Arsenal Reserves on 16 September 1937.
The British media is dominated by national outlets, with local media playing a much smaller role. Traditionally the BBC played a dominant role in televising sport, providing extensive high quality advertisement free coverage and free publicity in exchange for being granted broadcast rights for low fees. ITV broadcast a smaller portfolio of events, and Channel 4 broadcast a few events from the 1980s, mainly horse races and so called minority sports. In the early 1990s this arrangement was shaken up by the arrival of pay TV in the form of BSkyB. Their dedicated sports channels have since become the only place for some major sports to be seen. Starting in 2006 the Irish company Setanta Sports emerged as a challenger to Sky Sports’ dominance of the British pay TV sports market; however, Setanta’s UK channel went into bankruptcy administration and off the air in 2009. Between 2009 and 2013 ESPN made an attempt to challenge Sky Sports’, which ended in failure. Since 2013 Sky’s main rival has been BT Sport, a subdidiary of the former national telecommunications monopoly BT plc. There is also a dedicated UK version of Eurosport, called British Eurosport.
Radio sports coverage is also important. BBC Radio 5 Live broadcasts almost all major sports events. It now has a commercial rival called Talksport, but this has not acquired anywhere near as many exclusive contracts as Sky Sports and dedicates much of its airtime to sports discussions and phone ins; Absolute Radio has also begun acquiring sports rights. Depending on the league and event, telecasts are often shown live on network television (traditionally on weekends and during major events either national through a Television network, or in some cases, regionally syndicated by an operation such as Raycom Sports or a team), and nationally available cable channels (such as ESPN or Fox Sports 1). In some leagues (such as the NHL and the NBA), events are also primarily shown by regional sports networks groups (such as Fox Sports Networks), networks which air telecasts for teams of local interest, which are usually only carried within the relevant market. Additionally, cable channels also exist that are dedicated to specific types of sports, certain college sports conferences, or a specific league. Pay per view broadcasts are typically restricted to combat sports such as boxing, mixed martial arts or professional wrestling.
Radio broadcasts are extensive. The national leagues each have national network coverage of league high games in addition to local radio coverage originating with each team, with ESPN Radio and WestwoodOne controlling national rights to the major team sports and the motorsports circuits operating their own networks. Local radio broadcasts cover a wide variety of sports, ranging from the majors to local school and recreational leagues.
Internet broadcasts are also common, though college and major professional sports either use a pay wall or subscriber based systems such as TV Everywhere to extract payment. Missouri football game while it was being played. A Western Union telegraph wire was set up direct from Columbia, Missouri. A group of people then would announce the results of the previous play and used a large model of a football playing field to show the results. Those in attendance cheered as though they were watching the game live, including the school’s legendary Rock Chalk, Jayhawk cheer.
The first voice broadcast of a sporting event took place on 11 April 1921 when Westinghouse station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania broadcast a 10 round, no decision boxing match between Johnny Dundee and Johnny Ray at Pittsburgh’s Motor Square Garden. Prior to that, an experimental telegraph broadcast of the 1919 Lone Star Showdown was held on Thanksgiving Day of that year on experimental station 5XB, the predecessor of WTAW.
The first radio broadcast of a baseball game occurred on 5 August 1921 over KDKA from Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field. Harold W. Arlin announced a game between the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Philadelphia Phillies. Two months later, on 8 October 1921, from the same Forbes Field, Arlin announced the first live radio broadcast of a college football game on KDKA when he gave the play by play action of the University of Pittsburgh victory over West Virginia University.
On 17 May 1939, the ‘ first televised sporting event, a college baseball game between the Columbia Lions and Princeton Tigers, was broadcast by NBC from Columbia’s Baker Field. (The world’s first live televised sporting event had been the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin.) On 30 September 1939, the first American football game, a college contest between Fordham and Waynesburg College was broadcast on television. The first nation wide broadcast of college football, which was also the first live sporting event seen coast to coast, was a game between Duke University and the University of Pittsburgh that was televised by NBC on 29 September 1951. The broadcasting of college football games on television in the has been a fixture of the major networks on a continuous basis since that time. The NCAA severely restricted broadcasts of college football from the 1950s until a judge ruled that the action was a violation of antitrust rules in 1982, which allowed for a much greater expansion of college football broadcasting.
NBC broadcast the first televised National Football League (NFL) game when they carried the 22 October 1939 game between the Philadelphia Eagles and the Brooklyn Dodgers. The same year, the first nationwide radio broadcast of an NFL championship game was carried on the Mutual Broadcasting System. While the NFL had weak television deals that ranked behind college football and even the Canadian Football League in the 1950s, the broadcast rights of the NFL would go on to become an important property following the 1958 NFL Championship and the later establishment of the American Football League in 1960. Monday Night Football, NFL on Fox, and NBC Sunday Night Football have changed the landscape of American football broadcasts, including the scheduling of the Super Bowl, transforming it into a primetime spectacle from an afternoon broadcast. The price for the NFL’s broadcast rights has increased steadily over the past several decades, in part because of bidding wars between the numerous networks and the fear of losing stature due to the loss of NFL programming; as of the most recent contract the league nets annual fees of over $5 billion, or half of the league’s overall revenue, from television rights alone. Four of the five major sports television units in the , and the four companies that control all of the major broadcast networks, currently own some NFL rights.
NBC also broadcast an NHL game in 1940; the league would briefly air games in the 1950s, but due to a dispute over how much of the rights fee money the players would receive (and difficulties programming around the two Canadian teams in the league at the time), the NHL refused to televise its games in the for six years in the 1960s. For this reason, as well as the regional nature of the sport, televised NHL games have struggled to gain a foothold on American television for the past several decades, trailing the other leagues in ratings. After several decades of bouncing around various networks (and a stretch from 1975 to 1994 when the league had no permanent broadcast partner), the NHL established a stable broadcast partner in 2004, when NBC and what was then Outdoor Life Network (since renamed OLN, Versus, and now NBCSN) took over NHL broadcast rights, having since renewed those rights through 2021.
The first ever television broadcast of a basketball game occurred on 28 February 1940 when the University of Pittsburgh defeated Fordham at Madison Square Garden on NBC station W2XBS. Professional basketball has been aired on television since 1953, shortly after the founding of the National Basketball Association, and has been aired on television ever since. College basketball, on the other hand, was much later in gaining a television foothold. Although the NCAA Tournament has aired since 1962, it was not until the mid 1970s that regular season college basketball games would air on major network television.
Outside of the networks, the only other source for national sports television was through early syndication networks. Sports Network Incorporated (SNI), later renamed the Hughes Television Network, carried Cleveland Browns (NFL) games in the 1950s and NHL games in the late 1970s, after the NHL lost its contract with NBC. TVS Television Network helped popularize the broadcasts of college basketball and also gave an outlet to the short lived World Football League. Mizlou Television Network earned a reputation for carrying a large number of college football bowl games in an era when televised college football was highly restricted. Modern syndication networks still exist for sporting events, such as Raycom Sports and American Sports Network, both of which specialize in college sports.
The debut of ESPN in 1979 revolutionized the broadcasting of sports events. Within several years of ESPN’s founding as a basic cable channel, it had developed a stable of sports broadcasts ranging from major leagues to oddities. ESPN has since grown into a massive multiplexed network, with several channels and a large news bureau that has led to the network bestowing the title of "Worldwide Leader in Sports" upon itself. Cable, and later digital cable and satellite, greatly expanded the number of channels (and, by extension, the room for broadcasting sports events) available on a given set, and also gave channels such as ESPN the ability to broadcast direct and nationwide, as opposed to dealing with local affiliates. Syndication networks gave way to regional sports networks, which carried broadcasts of local sports on a far greater scale than full service broadcast stations could provide at the time; these combined with out of market sports packages (which debuted in the 1990s) allowed the carriage of these networks’ sporting events across the country. Individual leagues began launching their own networks in the 2000s; specialty networks of other sports have had varying levels of success.
The Internet has also allowed greater broadcasting of sports events, both in video and audio forms and through free and subscription channels. With an Internet broadcast, even a locally broadcast high school football game can be heard worldwide on any device with an audio output and an Internet connection. Individual leagues (including major ones) all have subscription services that allow subscribers to watch their sporting events for a fee.
Edgar Allan Poe’s Unity Of Impression
When I sat down to write my mini story on "Alzheimer’s" I pretty much had on mind Edgar Allan Poe’s writing principle: Unity of impression. To bind the story together I used an object (a 100 burnt out light bulb) that would mirror and symbolize human life: that it eventually burns out.
Poe held that a good work has to be short enough to be read in one sitting. If it requires two sittings, the unity of impression and effect is damaged. That is why he was so critical of Milton’s long poem "Paradise Lost."
Because of that long held belief, Poe wrote only one novel: "The Narrative of A. Gordon Pym." A novel must be read by taking human bites of a few chapters at a time. He is particularly well known for his short stories of horror and terror, and also for his long poem, the Raven. Poe began his career writing Gothic fiction, especially through the tales of the macabre for which he is now so famous. In all his tales Poe never deviates from the "Unity" principle. In one of his letters, he writes: "In writing these Tales . at long intervals, I have kept the book unity always in mind . with reference to its effect as part of a whole."
The narrator of "Ligeia" at one point cites Lord Bacon’s dictum: "There is no exquisite beauty says Bacon, Lord Verulam, speaking truly of all the forms and genera of beauty, without some strangeness in the proportion." On the surface this seems to paradoxical, but on deeper reflection is holds some truth. In addition, Poe also observed that "The death . of a beautiful woman is unquestionably the most poetical topic in the world."
With the above two observations, together with the "Unity" principle I wrote my story in one sitting. For those of you who have not read it, here it is:
Alzheimer, Love, and Mercy the Death of a Beautiful Woman
Glancing through my bookshelves I noticed a book entitled, The Things They Carried.
To fix the remembrances we value we carry or keep our favorite things. In my case, I value a 100 watt burnt out light bulb more than anything else I can think of. I will explain in a moment.
In the mid sixties, as both Mary Patricia and I were pursuing our separate careers, we had to juggle our time to hold our marriage together and to spend quality time with our first born daughter. As a budding concert pianist, Mary Patricia’s schedule was filled with auditions, recitals, and long practice hours. To pay bills I took a break from school and got a job. We needed help desperately.
One good day, it occurred to me that my mother in law a widow for many years who lived all by herself in a big house in Boston, perhaps should move in to live with us here in Manhattan.
"With Jim now in the Marines," I said to Mary Patricia, "she must be lonely."
"Mom misses Jim a lot." With a melancholy voice Mary Patricia went on, "I must admit she favored my brother. Sometimes I felt like I was a glass pane that she’d look through me. But not with Jim oh, no. Her gaze would always linger on him."
"You’re imagining things," I would say to soother her. "Moms love their children equally."
Mary Patricia agreed to talk to her mom. And to our relief, Portia welcome the idea and soon she moved in with us. For fourteen precious years Portia enriched and sweetened our lives, for in my long years of existence besides my wife I haven’t met anyone as noble and kind hearted as my mother in law.
Endowed with an eye for colors and patterns, in her mild manner, she would suggest that I change ties, that a particular jacket or shoes were more appropriate. Never for a single day or moment did I have to worry about loose buttons, frayed cuffs, or soiled or spotted garments. Portia inspected and maintained my personal attire, just as she had with her husband’s (a distinguished and famed Boston attorney).
While the war in Vietnam was raging and seemed distant to many, in our household it was a daily threat. Jim Mary Patricia’s brother, Portia’s son was there. An occasional letter from Jim would relieve Portia’s anxiety. But the specter of doom filled her days.
Having lost my student deferment, I had no choice but to accept a commission as a second lieutenant in the US Army. After advanced training in Fort Benning, Georgia, and Fort Lawton in Oklahoma, I soon received my orders and shipped out to Vietnam.
While I came back from the war, Jim never did.
Yet Portia never begrudged her loss. She accepted Jim’s fate and his memory became a constant source of pride, for Jim had fallen with the gallantry of a true American hero in the battle for Khe Sanh. And many were the posthumous citations and medals that the Marines awarded him.
With my nerves shattered and suffering from hallucinations and nightmares, for a couple of years, Mary Patricia and Portia nursed me back to life. Like a divine angel of mercy Portia ministered to my shredded soul and body. My return to civilian life wasn’t easy, and had it not been for Portia, God knows what dark impulses would have seized my feeble reason.
When I got well and started working again, Portia once again looked after me with motherly love, respect, and sweetness. It seemed to me that she waited for the hours of the day to pass so that when I came home from work, she could greet me with a cup of hot tea and cookies.
At times I felt bad for Mary Patricia, for Portia’s attentions to her were not as expressive. Having grown up during the Great Depression, Portia was thrifty and not given to frivolous spending. Many a time, as I saw Portia use her 100 watt burnt out light bulb to mend my socks, I would ask Mary Patricia: "Wouldn’t it be more economical if I buy new socks? In today’s economy no one mends socks anymore."
"She did that for that dad. Let her be," Mary Patricia would reply.
Then one ill starred day an incident happened that was the harbinger of bad things to come.
Hot tea and cookies on the table by my side, I watched the 6 PM news. In the next instant, Portia walks in with another tray with cookies and hot tea. An awkward moment it was, for I was just as confused as she was. Realizing her duplicate action, Portia retreated to the kitchen carrying the tray, eyes filled with tears. I never gave it another thought until other little things started to become obvious that something was amiss.
Faced with the unmistakable facts that Portia wasn’t well mentally, we took her to a specialist. The diagnosis was ‘dementia caused by Alzheimer’s loss of memory.’
Portia became adamant and wanted to return to Boston to live in her own house again. But she no longer owned that house, for she had sold it when she moved in with us. And since her illness was progressing at a rapid pace, we had no choice but to install her in a facility that specialized in Alzheimer’s patients.
BAY AREA ACTIVISTS HELD AT SAN FERNANDO HIGH
The lunchtime protest that involved about 50 students lasted for about 1 1/2 hours and was organized by a Bay Area group called the Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action By Any Means Necessary, according to Los Angeles Unified School District officials.School district police were on site to handle the disturbance and called in Los Angeles Police Department officers.LAUSD police took three BAMN members into custody on suspicion of trespassing and disturbing the peace, said Assistant Chief of School Police Larry Hutchens.The incident began at noon when three people who did not attend the school encouraged students to walk out. Students later began throwing rocks and bottles while off campus, school officials said.The Oakland residents were on campus trying to incite the students, trying to get support for the protest,” said Sgt. Terry McBride of the LAPD’s Foothill Division.BAMN members also protested at a Sept. 25 affirmative action debate between former Ku Klux Klansman David Duke and civil rights activist Joe Hicks at Cal State Northridge.They arrived in the San Fernando Valley several days before the debate and recruited students from the university and San Fernando high schools.Cal State Northridge student leaders criticized the group, calling them outsiders trying to incite trouble.BAMN fliers were circulated around the San Fernando High campus, encouraging students to take action against Proposition 209, the initiative that would end racial and gender preferences in public education as well as in state and local government hiring and contracting.One flier said this is about the overall fight against racism and inequality in this society.”There was some bottle throwing going on outside the campus, but there were no injuries reported,” said Pat Spencer, LAUSD spokesman. That’s probably why they clamped down on these 20 kids.”The students who were cited on suspicion of truancy will have to go before a judge and could face fines up to $250 and community service, said Hutchens.Each student’s parents were called, Spencer said. When the students return to school today they will be required to attend counseling sessions, he said.